Robot Aided Wrist Rehabilitation
once upon a time......in 2007
Dr Leonardo Cappello (developer)
installing the WristBot at the Children Hospital Gaslini
Developers (from left to right):
Dr Francesca Marini
Dr Jacopo Zenzeri
Dr Valentina Squeri
Dr Dalia De Santis
Dr Annavera Cuppone
The WRIST device is a robotic system including a series of motors that can apply torques to a human wirst about the three axes of rotations: pronation/supination, flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. The Wrist system can deliver assistance or resistance or perturbation forces and can be used for rehabilitation or behavioral sciences. A controller, such as a programmed computer, may direct the actuation of a various motors to execute a rehabilitation or training program. A wrist attachment can be combined with shoulder elbow motion by a planar device or a robotic manipulandum in order to provide coordinated therapy for upper extremity. The disclosed WRIST robot can also be used to correlate wrist motion to brain activity, to study wrist movement control in impaired and unimpaired subjects, it can be used as high performance joystick as general interface for for aerospace and aeronautical industry.
The wrist robot is a 3 DOFs (Degrees Of Freedom) manipulandum which was developed for motor control study and rehabilitation: it allows full range of motion for the human wrist and is fully backdrivable, in order to allow the design of experiments in which a low end-point impedance is a key aspect. When a subject attempts to backdrive the robot, the interaction forces must be small enough to give the sensation as no device was connected. The range of motion (ROM) of the three DOFs almost matches the ROM of a normal wrist: 65°/70° (F/E), 15°/30° (A/A), 90°/90° (P/S), in a typical human subject, vs. ±72° (F/E), 45°/27° (A/A), ; ± 80° (P/S), in the wrist robot.
The robot is driven by 4 brushless motors which were chosen in such a way to compensate for the weight of the device, provide sufficient lifting force of the subject’s wrist (in case of rehabilitation) and overcome muscular force in case of isometric quasi maximal contraction. The maximum torque values are: 1.53 Nm (F/E); 1.63 Nm (A/A); 2.77 Nm (P/S). Angular rotations on the three axes are measured by means of digital encoders with a resolution of 4098 bit/turn.
The system is integrated with a virtual reality environment (VR) in order to provide a visual feedback to the user. The control architecture is based on three control loops: 1) an inner loop, running at 7 kHz in the motor servos; 2) an intermediate loop running at 1 kHz on a real time kernel that updates the current reference of each motor; 3) an external loop running at 100 Hz for the visual virtual reality and user interface. The PC is equipped with an Analog and Digital I/O PCI card (Sensoray, model 626), in which we use the following channels: a) Four 14 bit D/A channels for commanding the reference values of the motor currents; b) Four 24-bit counters for receiving the repetition signals of the digital encoders.
IIT WristBot 2.0: Clinical Version
For information and commercialization contact the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Dr Jacopo Zenzeri Jacopo.Zenzeri@iit.it
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (ITALY)
Heidelberg University (GERMANY)
University of Minnesota (USA)
San Francisco State University (USA)
Brock University (CANADA)
Southern Denmark University (DENMARK)
Nanyang Technological University (SINGAPORE)
Tan Tok Seng Hospital (SINGAPORE)
Singapore General Hospital (SINGAPORE)
IRCCS Gaslini Children Hospital (ITALY)
Masia L., Casadio M., Sandini G. and Morasso P. 2009, ‘Eye-hand coordination during dynamic visuomotor rotations’, PLoS ONE, vol. 4,no. 9, E7004.
Elangovan N, Cappello L, Masia L,Joshua Aman J, Jürgen Konczak J . "A robot-aided visuo-motor training that improves proprioception and spatial accuracy of untrained movement". Nature Scientific Report, volume 7, Article number: 17054 (2017)
Marini F, Contu S, Antuvan CW, Morasso P and Masia L. "The influence of external forces on wrist proprioception". Front. Hum. Neurosci., 31 August 2017.
Marini F, Hughes C, Squeri V, Doglio L, Moretti P, Morasso P, Masia L. "Robotic Wrist Training after Stroke: Adaptive Modulation of Assistance in Pediatric Rehabilitation", Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 91, May 2017, Pages 169–178 .
Marini F, Squeri V, Morasso P, Campus C, Konczak J, Masia L. "Robot-aided developmental assessment of wrist proprioception in children". Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 201714:3.
Cuppone A, Squeri M, Semprini M, Masia L and Konczak J. "Robot-assisted proprioceptive training with added vibro-tactile feedback enhances somatosensory and motor performance" PLoS ONE October 11, 2016.
Marini F, Squeri V, Morasso P and Masia L. " Wrist Proprioception: amplitude or position coding?" Front. Neurobotics, 19 October 2016
Contu S, Hughes C and Masia L. "The role of visual and haptic feedback during dynamically coupled bimanual manipulation" IEEE Transactions on Haptics , vol.PP, no.99, pp.1-1.
Marini F, Squeri V, Morasso PG, Konczak J and Masia L. (2016). "Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist proprioceptive acuity across a 3D workspace". PLoSONE 11(8): e0161155.
Cappello L, Elangovan N, Contu S, Khosravani S, Konczak J and Masia L (2015) "Robot-aided assessment of wrist proprioception". Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9:198.
Squeri V, Masia L, Giannoni P, Sandini G and Morasso P. ‘Wrist rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients by means of adaptive, progressive robot-aided therapy". IEEE Transaction on Neural System and Rehabilitation, 2014, 22 (2): 1-14.
Masia L., Squeri V., Burdet E., Sandini G. & Morasso P. 2012, "Wrist Coordination in a Kinematically Redundant Stabilization Task". IEEE Transaction on Haptics, vol. 5,no. 3, pp. 231–239.
Squeri V., Masia L., Casadio M., Vergaro E. and Morasso P. "Force/Movement Control in a hybrid task: pushing & visuo-manual tracking". PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(6): e11189
Masia L., Casadio M., Giannoni P., Sandini G. and Morasso P. "Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study" Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2009, 6:44 (7 December 2009)
Masia L., Casadio M., Sandini G. and Morasso P. 2009, "Eye-hand coordination during dynamic visuomotor rotations". PLoS ONE, vol. 4,no. 9, E7004.
Sanguineti V., Casadio M., Masia L., Squeri V. and Morasso P. ‘Robot-assisted neuro-rehabilitation’, Chapter 27 in Dario Farina, Winnie Jensen, Metin Akay (eds), Introduction To Neural Engineering For Motor Rehabilitation, ISBN 978-0-470-91673-5 - John Wiley & Sons, IEEE Press Series on Biomedical Engineering.
Masia L., Casadio M., Squeri V. , De Santis D. and Morasso P. “Enhancing recovery of sensorimotor functions: the role of haptic feedback in the re-learning process”. Submitted for “Neuro-robotics: From brain machine interfaces to rehabilitation robotics“ published by Springer ` Springer-Verlag London 2014. ISBN 978-94-017-8932-5
PEER-REVIEWED INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Basteris A, Contu S, Plunkett TK, Kuah CWK, Konczak J, Chua KSG, Masia L. "Robot-Aided Bimanual Assessment of Wrist Proprioception in People with Acute Stroke", IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics BIOROB 2018, 26-29 August 2018, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Contu S, Basteris A, Plunkett TK, Kuah CWK, Chua KSG, Campolo D, Masia L. " Wrist Proprioception in Acute and Subacute Stroke: A Robotic Protocol for Highly Impaired Patients". IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics BIOROB 2018, 26-29 August 2018, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Marini F, Hughes C, Morasso PG, Masia L. 'The effects of age and amplitude on wrist proprioceptive acuity' IEEE International Conference on Robotic Rehabilitation 2017, July 17-20, London, UK.
Marini F, Contu S, Morasso PG, Masia L, Zenzeri J. 'Codification mechanisms of wrist position sense' IEEE International Conference on Robotic Rehabilitation 2017, July 17-20, London, UK.
Contu S, Marini F, Masia L. 'Robotic assessment of the contribution of motor commands to wrist position sense' IEEE International Conference on Robotic Rehabilitation 2017, July 17-20, London, UK.
Contu S, Marini F, Cappello L and Masia L. "Robot-assisted assessment of wrist proprioception: Does wrist proprioceptive acuity follow Weber's law?" 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2015), Orlando, FL USA, August 16-20, 2016.
Antuvan, C.W., Yen, S.C. and Masia, L., 2016, June. 'Simultaneous classification of hand and wrist motions using myoelectric interface: Beyond subject specificity'. In 2016 6th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob) 26-26 June, Singapore.
Marini F, Contu S, Hughes CML, Morasso P and Masia L. "Robotic assessment of manual asymmetries in unimanual and bimanual wrist joint position sense". In 2016 6th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), 26-26 June, Singapore.
Leonardo Cappello, Khanh Dinh Binh and Lorenzo Masia. 'Design of SARCOMEX: a Soft ARm COMpliant Exoskeleton'. In 2016 6th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob) 26-26 June, Singapore.
Leonardo Cappello, Sara Contu, Naveen Elangovan, Sanaz Khosravani, Juergen Konczak and Lorenzo Masia. 'Evaluation of wrist joint proprioception by means of a robotic device'. 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence (URAI 2014) November 12~15, 2014 / Double Tree Hotel by Hilton, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
S. El-Khoury, I. Batzianoulis, C. W. Antuvan, S. Contu, L. Masia, S. Micera and A. Billard. 'EMG-based learning approach for estimating wrist motion'. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2015) Milan, Italy, August 25-29 2015.
Sara Contu, Leonardo Cappello, Juergen Konczak and Lorenzo Masia. "Preliminary analysis of non-dominant proprioceptive acuity and interlimb asymmetry in the human wrist" 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2015) Milan, Italy, August 25-29 2015.
Leonardo Cappello, Sara Contu, Juergen Konczak and Lorenzo Masia. "Wrist proprioceptive acuity: a comprehensive robot-aided assessment" 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2015) Milan, Italy, August 25-29 2015.
Francesca Marini, Valentina Squeri, Assunta Riva, Leonardo Cappello, Luca Doglio, Pietro Giovanni Morasso, Lorenzo Masia "Adaptive Wrist Robot Training in Pediatric Rehabilitation". IEEE International Conference on Robotic Rehabilitation 2015, 11-14 August 2015, Singapore
Sara Contu, Charmayne Hughes, Lorenzo Masia. "Influence of Visual Information on Bimanual Haptic Manipulation". IEEE International Conference on Robotic Rehabilitation 2015, 11-14 August 2015, Singapore
Leonardo Cappello, Sara Contu, Naveen Elangovan, Sanaz Khosravani, Juergen Konczak, Lorenzo Masia. "Evaluation of wrist joint proprioception by means of a robotic device". International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence (URAI) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Nov. 12~15, 2014: 531-534.
Marini F, Cappello L, Squeri V, Morasso P, Moretti P, Riva A, Doglio L and Masia L. “Online Modulation of Assistance in Robot Aided Wrist Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study on a Subject Affected by Dystonia”. IEEE Haptics Symposium, February 23-26, 2014 Houston, Texas.
Squeri V., Masia L., Riva A. and Morasso P. ‘A new robotic method to train wrist movements of stroke patients’. 1st European NeuroRehabilitation Congress, October 20-22, 2011 The Kurhaus Meran, Merano, Italy.
Squeri V., Masia L., Taverna L. and Morasso P. ‘Improving the ROM of Wrist Movements in Stroke Patients by means of a Haptic Wrist Robot’. IEEE EMBC, 30th August - 3rd September 2011, Boston, MA, USA.
Masia L., Morasso P. and Mortola F. ‘Balancing an unstable load with prono-supination movements of the wrist: feasibility study with a wrist robot.’, ISEK 2010 (The XVIII Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology), ISEK, Aalborg, Denmark, June 16-19, 2010.
Masia L., Squeri V., Saha D., Burdet E., Sandini G. & Morasso P. ‘Stabilizing unstable object by means of kinematic redundancy.’ 32st Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference (Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society), IEEE, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 31, September 4, 2010.
Masia L., Squeri V., Casadio M., Morasso P., Sanguineti V. and Sandini G. 2009, ‘Tracking target motion under combined visual and kinesthetic disturbances’, in 11th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, IEEE ICORR, Kyoto, Japan, June 23-26, 2009.
Masia L., Squeri V., Casadio M., Morasso P., Sanguineti V. and Sandini G. ‘Visuo-motor tracking with coordinated wrist movements under different combinations of visual and kinesthetic disturbances’, in IEEE HSI Human System Interaction, Catania, Italy, May 21-23, 2009.
Masia L., Casadio M., Nava N., Morasso P. and Sandini G. ‘Adaptive training strategy of distal movements by means of a wrist-robot’, in Second International Conferences on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, ACHI 2009 February 1-7, 2009 - Cancun, Mexico.
Masia L., Casadio M., Morasso P., Pozzo T. and Sandini G. ’Using a wrist robot for evaluating how human operators learn to perform pointing movements to a rotating frame of reference’. EEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics BIOROB October 19-22 2008, Scottsdale, Arizona, US.
Masia, L., Casadio, M., Morasso, P. & Sandini, G. (2008) "Preliminary investigation on how humans perform a video controlled pointing task under visual and kinesthetic combined disturbances", International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems IROS 2008 September 26, Nice, France, IROS 2008.